A Successful Chandrayaan-3 Mission by ISRO

A Successful Chandrayaan-3 Mission by ISRO

India has achieved a historic feat by successfully landing its third lunar exploration mission, Chandrayaan-3, on the surface of the Moon. The mission, launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on July 15, 2023, aimed to demonstrate soft landing and roving capabilities on the lunar terrain, as well as conduct scientific experiments using various payloads.

Mission Overview

Chandrayaan-3 consisted of two modules: a propulsion module and a lander module. The propulsion module carried the lander and a rover from the launch injection orbit to a 100 km circular lunar orbit. The lander then separated from the propulsion module and performed a series of de-boost and pre-landing maneuvers to reach the desired landing site near the lunar south pole. The rover was accommodated inside the lander and deployed after the successful landing.

The mission had a total mass of 3900 kg, including 1752 kg of the lander module and 26 kg of the rover. The mission life was one lunar day (about 14 Earth days) for both the lander and the rover. The propulsion module, which also carried a payload to study the Earth's spectral and polarimetric properties, had a longer mission life of 3 to 6 months.

Mission Objectives

The primary objectives of Chandrayaan-3 were to:

- Demonstrate soft landing on the lunar surface using indigenous technology
- Demonstrate roving on the lunar terrain using an indigenously developed rover
- Conduct in-situ scientific experiments using various payloads on board the lander and the rover
- Enhance the knowledge about the Moon and its environment

The secondary objectives were to:

- Support future interplanetary missions by developing and testing new technologies
- Inspire young minds and foster scientific curiosity among the public

Mission Payloads

Chandrayaan-3 carried a total of eight payloads, four on board the lander, two on board the rover, and one on board the propulsion module. The payloads were:

- Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA): A payload on board the lander to measure the plasma density and temperature near the lunar surface
- Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE): A payload on board the lander to measure the thermal conductivity and temperature gradient of the lunar soil
- Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA): A payload on board the lander to detect seismic events and moonquakes
- Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA): A payload on board the lander to provide a passive source of laser ranging for future missions
- Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): A payload on board the rover to determine the elemental composition of rocks and soil
- Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS): A payload on board the rover to perform chemical analysis of rocks and soil using laser pulses
- Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE): A payload on board the propulsion module to observe the Earth's spectral and polarimetric characteristics from the lunar orbit
- Laser Altimeter (LASA): A payload on board both modules to measure their altitude from the lunar surface

Mission Achievements

Chandrayaan-3 has been hailed as a major success for ISRO and India, as it marked the first time that an Indian spacecraft landed softly on the Moon. The mission also achieved several other milestones, such as:

- The first Indian mission to explore the lunar south pole region, which is of high scientific interest due to its potential for water ice and other resources
- The first Indian mission to deploy a rover on the lunar surface, which covered a distance of more than 500 meters and transmitted high-resolution images and data
- The first Indian mission to conduct in-situ experiments using multiple payloads, which provided valuable insights into the lunar geology, mineralogy, atmosphere, and seismicity
- The first Indian mission to use a Ka-band altimeter for precise landing navigation, which enabled a safe and accurate touchdown at a challenging site
- The first Indian mission to demonstrate laser communication between modules, which enabled high-speed data transmission and enhanced reliability

Mission Impact

Chandrayaan-3 has not only advanced India's space capabilities but also inspired millions of people across the country and beyond. The mission has:

- Showcased India's prowess in space technology and innovation
- Enhanced India's reputation as a leading space-faring nation
- Contributed to global scientific knowledge and exploration of the Moon
- Encouraged international collaboration and cooperation in space endeavors
- Stimulated public interest and awareness in space science and education

Chandrayaan-3 is a remarkable achievement for ISRO and India, and a testament to the vision and dedication of the scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in the mission. The mission has paved the way for future lunar and interplanetary missions, and opened up new horizons for scientific discovery and human exploration.


(5) Chandrayaan-3 - Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). https://www.isro.gov.in/Chandrayaan3_New.html.
(6) LVM3-M4/CHANDRAYAAN-3 MOON MISSION - Indian Space Research Organisation .... https://www.isro.gov.in/media_isro/pdf/Missions/LVM3/LVM3M4_Chandrayaan3_brochure.pdf.
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