The Untold Story of Pakistan’s Civil War: What You Need to Know

The Untold Story of Pakistan’s Civil War: What You Need to Know

Civil War in Pakistan?

Pakistan is a country that has been plagued by political instability, ethnic violence, religious extremism and regional conflicts for decades. But in recent years, the situation has worsened as the country faces a growing threat of civil war.

What are the causes of the civil war?

The civil war in Pakistan has multiple and complex causes, but some of the main ones are:

- The role of the military and intelligence agencies in politics and governance. The military has ruled Pakistan directly or indirectly for most of its history, and has often interfered with civilian governments and democratic processes. The intelligence agencies, especially the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), have been accused of supporting militant groups, such as the Taliban, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Tehreek-e-Labbaik Pakistan (TLP), that have carried out terrorist attacks in Pakistan and neighboring countries.

- The ethnic and regional disparities and grievances. Pakistan is a diverse country with four major provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Each province has its own language, culture and history, and often feels marginalized or exploited by the central government. Balochistan, for example, has been fighting for autonomy or independence since 1948, and has faced brutal repression by the security forces. Sindh has also witnessed separatist movements and violence by Sindhi nationalists. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been affected by the spillover of the war in Afghanistan and the presence of the Taliban and other militant groups. Punjab, which is the most populous and powerful province, has been accused of dominating the political and economic spheres of the country.

- The religious extremism and intolerance. Pakistan was founded as an Islamic republic, but has struggled to define its identity and relationship with Islam. The country has witnessed a rise of radical Islamist groups that have challenged the state's authority and legitimacy, and have targeted religious minorities, such as Shia Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Ahmadis. The TLP, for instance, is a hardline Sunni group that demands strict enforcement of blasphemy laws and opposes any reforms or concessions to minorities. The TLP has staged violent protests across the country, demanding the release of its leader Saad Rizvi, who was arrested on charges of inciting violence.

What are the consequences of the civil war?

The civil war in Pakistan has devastating consequences for the country and the region. Some of the main ones are:

- The loss of human lives and livelihoods. The civil war has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, according to various estimates, and has displaced millions of people internally and externally. The war has also destroyed infrastructure, disrupted education, health care and social services, and increased poverty and inequality.

- The threat to regional peace and security. The civil war in Pakistan has implications for its neighbors, especially India and Afghanistan. Pakistan and India have fought three wars over Kashmir, a disputed territory that both claim as their own. The civil war in Pakistan could escalate tensions between the two nuclear-armed rivals, and increase the risk of cross-border terrorism and infiltration. Afghanistan, which shares a long and porous border with Pakistan, has also suffered from the spillover of violence and instability from Pakistan. The civil war in Pakistan could undermine the peace process in Afghanistan, and strengthen the Taliban and other extremist groups that operate on both sides of the border.

- The challenge to global stability and cooperation. The civil war in Pakistan poses a challenge to the international community, which has invested billions of dollars in aid and assistance to Pakistan over the years. The civil war could jeopardize the efforts to combat terrorism, extremism, nuclear proliferation, climate change and other global issues that require cooperation between Pakistan and other countries.

What are the possible solutions to the civil war?

The civil war in Pakistan is not an easy problem to solve, but some possible steps that could help are:

- A dialogue between all stakeholders. The civil war in Pakistan requires a political solution that involves dialogue between all parties involved: the government, the military, the opposition parties, the provincial governments, the civil society groups, the religious leaders and the militant groups. The dialogue should address the root causes of the conflict: such as constitutional reforms, power-sharing arrangements, resource distribution, human rights protection and accountability mechanisms.

- A regional approach. The civil war in Pakistan cannot be resolved without taking into account its regional context and implications. A regional approach should involve cooperation between Pakistan and its neighbors: such as India, Afghanistan, Iran and China. The regional approach should aim to reduce tensions, build trust, enhance trade and connectivity, promote development and address common challenges.

- An international support. The civil war in Pakistan also requires international support from countries that have an interest or influence in Pakistan: such as the United States, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and others. The international support should provide humanitarian assistance to those affected by the conflict; diplomatic pressure to encourage dialogue; economic incentives to foster development; security assistance to counter terrorism; and political engagement to facilitate cooperation.


The civil war in Pakistan is a complex and protracted conflict that threatens not only Pakistan's stability but also regional peace and global security. It requires a comprehensive solution that addresses its causes, consequences and possible solutions.


(1) Civil War in Pakistan? - IslamiCity.

(2) Imran Khan arrest: Is Pakistan hurtling towards civil war? Here's what ....

(3) Balochistan: The untold story of Pakistan's other war - BBC.

(4) Civil War: Pakistan (1971) - Omnilogos.

(5) Explained: The Civil War In Pakistan - DefenceXP.

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