Sudan Crisis 2023: Everything You Need to Know and How to Help

Sudan Crisis 2023: Everything You Need to Know and How to Help

Sudan Crisis: What You Need to Know


Sudan is a country in north-east Africa that has been facing a political and humanitarian crisis since October 2021, when the military dissolved the power-sharing government and declared a state of emergency. The military coup was followed by mass protests and killings by the security forces, which sparked international condemnation and sanctions.

The situation worsened in April 2023, when a violent conflict erupted between the regular army and a paramilitary force called the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), led by General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemedti. The RSF is a former militia that has been accused of atrocities in Darfur and has intervened in regional wars in Yemen and Libya.

The fighting has resulted in hundreds of deaths, thousands of injuries, and hundreds of thousands of displacements. Many civilians have been caught up in the crossfire or targeted by air strikes in urban areas. The humanitarian situation is dire, as people face shortages of food, water, medicine and fuel. The conflict has also disrupted the flow of oil, which is Sudan’s main source of income, and threatened the stability of the Nile, which is a vital resource for millions of people in the region.

What are the causes of the crisis?


The crisis in Sudan has deep historical roots and complex political dynamics. Some of the main factors that have contributed to the current situation are:

The legacy of Omar al-Bashir: Bashir was Sudan’s president for 30 years until he was ousted by a popular uprising in 2019. He ruled with an iron fist and presided over a series of wars, human rights violations, corruption scandals and economic crises. He is wanted by the International Criminal Court for genocide and crimes against humanity in Darfur.

The power struggle within the military: After Bashir's overthrow, a transitional council composed of military and civilian representatives was formed to oversee a democratic transition. However, the military leaders, especially General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan and Hemedti, have been reluctant to cede power and have clashed over their roles and interests. The tension escalated when an internationally-backed plan to launch a new transition with civilian parties was due to be signed in early April 2023, but was rejected by some army factions and Bashir loyalists.

The aspirations of the pro-democracy movement: The Sudanese people have been demanding freedom, justice and democracy since the 2019 uprising that toppled Bashir. They have continued to protest against the military coup and the violence perpetrated by the security forces. They have also called for accountability for the crimes committed by Bashir and his allies, as well as for social and economic reforms.

What are the impacts of the crisis?


The crisis in Sudan has devastating consequences for its people and its environment. Some of the impacts of the crisis are:

Human suffering: The violence has claimed hundreds of lives and injured thousands more. Many people have been traumatized by the brutality and fear. Many more have been forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in neighboring countries or in camps within Sudan. The displaced people face harsh conditions and lack of basic services such as food, water, health care and education.

Economic collapse: The conflict has disrupted Sudan's economy, which was already struggling before the coup. The oil production and exports, which account for most of the government revenue, have been severely affected by the fighting and the sanctions. The inflation rate has soared to over 300%, making life unaffordable for many. The poverty rate has increased to over 60%, leaving millions of people vulnerable to hunger and malnutrition.

Environmental damage: The crisis in Sudan has also harmed its natural resources and biodiversity. The air strikes and bombings have caused pollution and fires that have destroyed crops and forests. The Nile river, which is the lifeline of Sudan and other countries in the region, has been threatened by the conflict and the construction of dams upstream. The water scarcity and contamination have increased the risk of diseases and conflicts over access to water.

What are the possible solutions?


The crisis in Sudan requires urgent action from all parties involved to end the violence, protect civilians, restore dialogue and resume the transition to democracy. Some of the possible steps that could help resolve the crisis are:

A ceasefire: Both sides should respect the ceasefires that have been announced and allow humanitarian access to those in need. They should also refrain from any further attacks on civilian targets or infrastructure.

A mediation: Regional and international actors should support a mediation process that can bring together the military factions, the civilian parties, and the pro-democracy movement to negotiate a peaceful settlement. The African Union, the United Nations, and other influential countries should use their leverage to pressure the parties to engage in good faith and respect human rights.

A transition: The parties should agree on a roadmap for a new transition that can restore civilian rule and prepare for free and fair elections. The transition should also address the root causes of the conflict, such as justice, reconciliation, development and decentralization.

How can you help?


The crisis in Sudan is not only a threat to its people but also to its neighbors and the world. It is important to raise awareness about the situation and support the efforts of those who are working to end the violence and promote democracy. You can help by:

Educating yourself: Learn more about Sudan’s history, culture and politics from reliable sources such as .

Spreading the word: Share information and stories about Sudan on social media using hashtags such as #SudanCrisis #StandWithSudan #SudanUprising.

Donating: Support organizations that are providing humanitarian aid or advocacy for Sudan such as Mercy Corps, Save the Children, Oxfam, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International. You can find more information on their websites or social media platforms.

Taking action: Join campaigns and petitions that are calling for an end to the violence, the restoration of civilian rule and the respect for human rights in Sudan. You can also contact your representatives and urge them to support diplomatic and humanitarian efforts for Sudan.
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